United States Health Information Knowledgebase

 

USHIK Glossary

Term Definition
AHRQ
(Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) The government agency which funds and directs USHIK in collaboration with CMS and VA.
Administered Item
A Metadata item, such as a Data Element, Value Domain, or Functional Group, which is registered within USHIK and for which descriptive attributes are published.
All-Payer Claims Database
One of the USHIK informational portals, dedicated to storing Metadata related to the States' All-Payer Claims Databases initiatives.
Answer
One of several possible responses to a question on a form, represented in USHIK as a Value / Value Meaning pair.
Base Standard
A standard capable of fulfilling a discrete function within a single category produced and maintained by a single standards organization. Examples include HL7 v2.x, SNOMED-CT. Per HITSP definition, the term "standard" refers to, but is not limited to, specifications, Implementation Guides, code sets, terminologies and Integration Profiles. Examples are messaging standards, security standards and code sets.
CMS
(Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services) Along with HHS and the VA, one of the government agencies working in collaboration to support USHIK.
Calculation
An operation between two or more Data Elements and / or Derived Data Elements. Generally used to express arithmetic logic within a measure.
Capability
An implementable business service that specifies interoperable Information Exchanges using HITSP constructs. A Capability supports stakeholder requirements and business processes and includes workflow, information content, infrastructure, security and privacy.
Code
A Concept representation published as part of a Code System and it is an entity of that Code System. It is the preferred unique identifier for that concept in that Code System and used in the code property of a coded data type. The meaning of a code within a particular Code System entity is valid only within that Code System.[Adapted from HL7 Version 3 Core Principals]
Code System
[Adapted from HL7 Version 3 Core Principals] A Code System is a managed collection of Concept identifiers, usually Codes, but sometimes more complex sets of rules and references. They are often described as collections of uniquely identifiable concepts with associated representations, designations, associations, and meanings. Examples of Code Systems include ICD-9 CM, SNOMED CT, LOINC, CPT and UCUM. To meet the requirements of a Code System, a given concept representation must resolve to one and only one meaning within the Code System. Code Systems are often referred to as terminologies, vocabularies, or coding schemes.
Collection
A defined, functional group of Metadata items with a specific purpose or usage.
Common Formats
The common definitions and reporting formats, specified by AHRQ, that allow health care providers to collect and submit standardized information regarding patient safety events.
Component
A construct that defines the set of Data Elements, structures, relationships, Constraints and terminology needed to support specific reusable information content. A component may also express constraints on base or composite standards. Examples are the lab result message and lab result context. Components describe the payload of an Information Exchange.
Composite Standard
A grouping of coordinated base standards, often from multiple standards organizations, maintained by a single organization. Examples include IHE Information Technology Infrastructure XDS Integration Profile.
Concept
[Adapted from HL7 Version 3 Core Principals] A unitary mental representation of a real or abstract thing; an atomic unit of thought. It should be unique in a given Code System. A concept may have synonyms in terms of representation and it may be a primitive term or composed of other terms in the Code System. See Data Element Concept.
Conceptual Domain
A set of valid Value Meanings.
Constraint
Rules applied to Data Elements and Value domains. (HITSP: an expression of a business rule applied to an Information Exchange. It can restrict the values that appear within the exchange in a variety of different ways, and appear in both HITSP Specifications and in the standards those specifications select.)
Constraint Value Set
Subsets from a larger Value Domain based on a pre-defined rule; constraint value sets may be enumerated or non-enumerated.
Construct
A specification based on harmonized interoperability standards. HITSP defines Transaction, Transaction Package, Service Collaboration and Component constructs.
Context
Descriptors used to identify an upper level grouping of related items; the Context is a subjectively relational grouping, not necessarily a physical one. Typically, a Context is used when identifying Administered Items related at the time of their loading into the USHIK application.
Data Agreement
Agreements between organizations that define common usage of Metadata.
Data Collection
A defined, functional group of Metadata items with a specific purpose or usage.
Data Element
A Data Element is the smallest unit of data pertinent to an electronic exchange of information. A Data Element may contain several discrete Values (e.g., month, day and year to convey a date, or code and Code System to convey a concept, or number and unit to convey a measure of a physical quantity). The selected standards use the terms attribute, component, Data Element or field to describe a Data Element.
Data Element Concept
A Concept that can be represented as a Data Element, described independently of any particular representation.
Data Element Set
Used to describe common Data Elements that may be reused across multiple settings among multiple S&I Framework initiatives. A DES can be used to provide a common set of elements that are used to capture information.
Data Requirement (DR)
Defines requirements for all or part of the IER exchange content as a set of Data Elements with specific semantic details.
Derived Data Element
A Data Element derived from a combination of and/or a calculation using other Data Elements.
Exchange Action
Describes the interaction that communicates the Exchange Content between the Systems.
Exchange Architecture
Defines the fundamental topologies that can be used in implementing the HITSP Interoperability Specifications in systems (e.g., EHR systems directly connected or connected to Health Information Exchanges (HIEs) and HIEs connected to other HIEs).
Exchange Attributes
Parameters about an Information Exchange. Examples are constraints, conditions and triggers.
Exchange Content
Describes the information to be communicated in business terms.
Exclusion
A type of Constraint which specifies values or conditions which cause data from a larger set to be excluded from the set of permissible data.
Extensional Value Set
A set where all the elements of this set are explicitly stated or enumerated.
Form
A (functional) group of questions (Data Elements) used as a data collection instrument.
Functional Group
A group of Administered Items (and / or other functional groups) which specify hierarchy and structure used by specific implementations. Measures, Forms, Collections, and Initiatives are all examples of types of functional groups.
HHS
DHHS(Department of Health & Human Services) The government department that oversees AHRQ.
HITSP
(Healthcare Information Technology Standards Panel) A cooperative partnership between the public and private sectors. The Panel was formed by ANSI under contract to ONC for the purpose of choosing standards and data elements that fulfill the functions of use cases supplied by HHS. Its work is extensible to harmonizing and integrating standards that meet clinical and business needs for sharing information among organizations and systems.
HITSP Interoperability Specification
A Construct (document) that specifies the standards and data elements chosen by HITSP to fulfil the functions of HHS-supplied use cases. It identifies which HITSP lower-level Constructs the user should integrate to meet Business Needs. It defines requirements, context and Constraints for those Constructs.
Harmonization
Harmonization is the name given to the effort by industry to replace the variety of product standards and other regulatory policies adopted by nations, in favor of uniform global standards. Usually used to in the context of trade agreements, harmonization has recently been adopted by the United States government to refer to information technology standards (http://www.hitsp.org/)
Harmonization Framework
Defines the terms, concepts and their relationships within a HITSP Interoperability Specification (IS), Capability (CAP), Component (C), Transaction (T), Transaction Package (TP) and Service Collaboration (SC).
Harmonization Request
Defines business or functional needs, within a workflow, and sets context and conditions for the Interoperability Specification. Behavioral specifications of functional needs or capabilities may be structured as Use Cases, Scenarios, Business Process Models or other forms.
ISO / IEC 11179
An international standard for representing Metadata for registries. USHIK is built using the ISO / IEC 11179 Metadata model.
Inclusion
A type of Constraint which specifies values or conditions which cause data from a larger set to be included in the set of permissible data.
Information Exchange Requirement (IER)
A business requirement described in terms of Exchange Content, Exchange Action, Systems involved in the exchange and Exchange Attributes.
Information Model
A graphical representation of categories data elements that describe both the hierarchies of these categories and the documents (components) in which they are presented or published.
Initiative
A project (or set of projects) that aim to achieve a given (or common) goal
Intensional Value Set
[Adopted from HL7 Version 3 Core Principals] A set of rules that can be resolved (ideally computationally) to an exact list of concept representations at a particular point in time. See also Value Set.
Interface
The set of features and obligations that support Information Exchanges for a HITSP system. Interfaces and Information Exchanges between interfaces are specified by HITSP Constructs, including Service Collaborations for example, Content Creator, Document Consumer, Eligibility Information Receiver and Audit Record Repository.
Interoperability Specification (IS)
A Construct (document) that specifies the standards and data elements chosen by HITSP to fulfil the functions of HHS-supplied use cases. It identifies which HITSP lower-level Constructs the user should integrate to meet Business Needs. It defines requirements, context and Constraints for those Constructs.
Metadata
Descriptions of the characteristics of a data element.
Module
A group of related Data Elements.
Organization
Standards Development Organization
Patient Safety Form
These forms allow the collection of information, in relevant detail, about any patient safety concern reported in an acute care hospital.
Permissible Value
Within a given Value Domain, the unique combination of a Value and a Value Meaning.
Question
In USHIK, a specific type of Data Element which, when grouped together on a Form, enables the form to serve as a data collection instrument. Questions may call for specific structured answers or may be open ended in free text.
Registry
[Adopted from the OASIS EbXML Glossary] A mechanism whereby relevant Repository items and Metadata about them can be registered such that a pointer to their location, and all their Metadata, can be retrieved as a result of a query.
Repository
[Adopted from the OASIS EbXML Glossary] A location or set of distributed locations where Repository Items, pointed at by the Registry Metadata, reside and from which they can be retrieved.
Representational Class
A description of the type of data enumerated by a given Value Domain.
Restriction
A constraint on the usage of a given Data Element.
SDO
Standards Development Organization
Service Collaboration
The composition of HITSP Transaction, Transaction Package, or Component constructs into a reusable workflow, primarily at the infrastructure level. Service Collaborations do not contain content, i.e., Data Elements. Service Collaborations are organized into an external view, i.e., outward facing interfaces, and an internal view that includes inward facing interfaces. Inward facing interfaces may call upon Transaction Packages, Transactions, Components, or other Service Collaborations. The Service Collaboration document illustrates one internal view diagram and sequence table for each service interface. The internal view diagrams are descriptive and the associated sequences are not mandatory. They may be affected by policy, chosen architecture, and implementation details. Conformance is measured against the underlying constructs. Security and Privacy constructs are incorporated into the infrastructure Service Collaborations as appropriate.
Stakeholder
A person or organization that uses or benefits from systems that interoperate.
Template
In normal use, a template is a pattern that must be followed in the construction of something. Within HL7 version 3 based standards a template is set of business rules (constraints) used to create an artifact used in an Information Exchange. Templates are formally defined in the HL7 Version 3. Templates are used by HITSP, HL7 and IHE as a way to express the business rules applied to HL7 Version 3 based documents and messages.
Transaction
A logical grouping of data exchanges and transport methods that must all succeed or fail as a group. Examples are the Query Lab Result or Send Lab Result. A HITSP Transaction (T) is a logical grouping of data exchanges and transport methods that must all succeed or fail as a group. Examples are the query lab result or send lab result. A transaction is a HITSP Specification that fulfills the actions between two or more systems needed to meet one or more interoperability requirements.
Transaction Package
A HITSP Transaction Package (TP) is a logical grouping of two or more Transactions, Transaction Packages, and/or composite standards used to fulfill Information Exchange requirements (IERs). A Transaction Package is not required to succeed or fail as a whole. Examples include the Record Locator Service and Entity Identification Service.
USHIK
(United States Health Information Knowledgebase) A computer-based Metadata Registry system that implements the specifications of the multi-part international standard ISO/IEC-11179, "Specification and Standardization of Data Elements", and the American National Standard X3.285, "Metadata for the Management of shareable Data". These complementary and mutually correlated standards specify the conceptual framework for computer-based registries of Data Elements and their Metadata attributes. These registries maintain a consistent record of the Metadata specifications for the semantics of the individual Data Elements.
VA
(Dept. of Veterans Affairs) Along with HHS and the CMS, one of the government agencies working in collaboration to support USHIK.
Value
A codified representation of a particular Permissible Value within the context of a Value Domain. Values may be shared by multiple Value Domains.
Value Domain
An Administered Item which describes the Permissible Values by which a Data Element can be implemented. If enumerated, the Value Domain describes specifically which Permissible Values are allowable. If non-enumerated, the Value Domain defines what values are allowable by specifying a range or other rule for allowable values.
Value Meaning
A unit of meaning which, when combined with a given Value in the context of a Value Domain, specify a Permissible Value. Value Meanings are grouped together within a Conceptual Domain and may be shared among multiple Conceptual Domains.
Value Set
An Administered Item which describes the Permissible Values by which a Data Element can be implemented. If enumerated, the Value Domain describes specifically which Permissible Values are allowable. If non-enumerated, the Value Domain defines what values are allowable by specifying a range or other rule for allowable values.
Vocabulary
[adapted from HL7 Version 3 Core Principals] A set of Concepts designated by terms belonging to a special domain of knowledge, or subject field.
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